Spokane TV Stations: From Analog to Digital

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Spokane TV stations are broadcast companies in Spokane Washington that transmits programs over a television (medium). The most recent technology promotes that broadcast signals will be switched to the new digital signal. There are a number of well-known TV stations in Spokane which is already broadcasting digitally. So it exactly means that they will all switch off the analog signals by next year. When switched to this latest innovation, viewers will discover that stations are able to add auxiliary channels.

Here is a list of Spokane’s TV stations that serves the Spokane television market provided with their corresponding channels:

  • KREM Channel 2

KREM Channel 2 is one of the television stations in Spokane, WA which serves the Spokane television market. This TV station is located in 4103 South Regal Street Spokane, WA 99223. The programming of the station is run by the CBS network. KREM operates with 893 kilowatts of power and is owned by the Belo Corporation.

  • KXLY Channel 4

KXLY is a television station which runs programming from the ABC network. KXLY is a digital full-power television station that operates with 23.3 kilowatts of power and is owned by Spokane Television Group, a subsidiary of Morgan Murphy Media.

  • KHQ Channel 6

This TV station has just completed its installation and testing of a new digital antenna to greatly improve the station’s signal strength last week. The station runs programming from the NBC network and operates 45.1 kilowatts of power. The station is owned by The KHQ Television Group, a subsidiary of Cowles Publishing Company, which owns The Spokesman-Review newspaper.

  • KSPS Channel 7

This TV station which broadcasts three channels, including channels 8 and 44 has modified its digital frequencies. This change will be effective next year. The station runs programming from the PBS network and operates with 21.6 kilowatts of power. KSPS Channel is owned by Spokane Public Schools.

  • KWSU Channel 10

KWSU is a television station in Pullman which runs programming from the PBS network. KWSU with 6.2 kilowatts of power and is owned by Washington State University.

  • KSKN Channel 22

KSKN is a television station in Spokane which runs programming from the The CW network and identifies itself as “CW 22”. KSKN operates with 250 kilowatts of power and is owned by Belo Corporation.

  • KQUP Channel 24

KQUP is a television station in Pullman, WA which runs Daystar programming and identifies itself as “KQUP 24”. KQUP operates with 57 kilowatts of power and is owned by Daystar Television Network.

  • KCDT Channel 26

KCDT is a television station in Coeur d’Alene, ID which runs programming from the PBS network and identifies itself as “Idaho PTV”. This television station operates with 38 kilowatts of power and is owned by Idaho State Board of Education.

  • KAYU Channel 28

KAYU is a television station in Spokane, WA which runs programming from the FOX network and identifies itself as “FOX 28”. KAYU operates with 91.4 kilowatts of power and is owned by Northwest Broadcasting.

  • KGPX Channel 34

KGPX is a television station in Spokane which runs programming from the ion network. KGPX is a digital full-power television station that operates with 104 kilowatts of power and is owned by ION Media Networks.

  • KHBA Channel 39

KHBA Channel 39 is a low-power TV station broadcasting locally on UHF. This TV station is the only local Christian station which runs programming from 3ABN. The station is owned by He’s Alive Broadcasting Association.

Get the latest news scoops that you want at Spokane TV stations.

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Blown Film Extrusion Introduction

Blown Film Extrusion Introduction
Blown film extrusion is a technology that is the most common method to make plastic films, especially for the packaging industry. The process involves extruding a tube of molten polymer through a die and inflating to several times its initial diameter to form a thin film bubble. This bubble is then collapsed and used as a lay-flat film or can be made into bags. Usually polyethylene is used with this process, and other materials can be used as blends with these polymers. A diagram of a polyethylene chain is shown in Figure 1 to the right.
Background Theory on Polymers

In the cooling step of blown film extrusion, the amorphous, transparent melt crystallizes to form a translucent, hazy, or opaque film. The point where opacity begins in the bubble is known as the frost line. 
Fig 1: Model of polytheylene chain frompolyethylene Wikipedia article.The frost line height is controlled by several parameters: the air flow, film speed, and temperature difference between the film and the surroundings. Properties of the film, such as tensile strength, flexural strength, toughness, and optical properties, drastically change depending on the orientation of the molecules. As the transverse or hoop direction properties increase, the machine or longitudinal direction properties decrease. For instance, if all the molecules were aligned in the machine direction, it would be easy to tear the film in that direction, and very difficult in the transverse direction.

The Film Blowing machine Process

Fig 2: Schematic of set-up from User:J.Chiang.

Typically, blown film extrusion is carried out vertically upwards, however horizontal and downward extrusion processes are now becoming more common. Figure 2 shows a schematic of the set-up for blown film extrusion. This procedure consists of four main steps: The polymer material starts in a pellet form, which are successively compacted and melted to form a continuous, viscous liquid. This molten plastic is then forced, or extruded, through an annular die. Air is injected through a hole in the center of the die, and the pressure causes the extruded melt to expand into a bubble. The air entering the bubble replaces air leaving it, so that even and constant pressure is maintained to ensure uniform thickness of the film. The bubble is pulled continually upwards from the die and a cooling ring blows air onto the film. The film can also be cooled from the inside using internal bubble cooling. This reduces the temperature inside the bubble, while maintaining the bubble diameter. After solidification at the frost line, the film moves into a set of nip rollers which collapse the bubble and flatten it into two flat film layers. The puller rolls pull the film onto windup rollers. The film passes through idler rolls during this process to ensure that there is uniform tension in the film. Between the nip rollers and the windup rollers, the film may pass through a treatment centre, depending on the application. During this stage, the film may be slit to form one or two films, or surface treated. Advantages Blown film generally has a better balance of mechanical properties than cast or extruded films because it is drawn in both the transverse and machine directions. Mechanical properties of the thin film include tensile and flexural strength, and toughness. The nearly uniform properties in both directions allow for maximum toughness in the film.
Blown film extrusion can be used to make one large film, two smaller ones, or tubes that can be made into bags. Also, one die can make many different widths and sizes without significant trimming. This high level of flexibility in the process leads to less scrap material and higher productivity. Blown films also require lower melting temperatures than cast extrusion. Measured at the die opening, the temperature of cast film is about 220 C, where as the temperature of blown film is about 135 C. Furthermore, the cost of the equipment is approximately 50% of a cast line.

Blown Film Extrusion Disadvantages Blown film has a less effective cooling process than flat film. Flat film cooling is done by means of chill rolls or water, which have significantly higher specific heat capacities than the air that is used in the blown film cooling process. The higher specific heat capacity allows the substance to absorb more heat with less change in the substance temperature. Compared to cast film, blown film has a more complicated and less accurate method to control film thickness; cast film has a thickness variation of 1 to 2% versus the 3 to 4% for blown film. The resins used for casting typically have a lower melt flow index, which is the amount of polymer that can be forced through a standard die in 10 minutes according to a standard procedure. The melt flow index for cast film is about 5.0 g/10 min where as for blown film it is about 1.0 g/10 min. Consequently, the production rates for cast film are higher: cast film lines can reach production rates of up to 300m/min where as blown film lines are usually less than half this value. And finally, cast film has better optical properties, including transparency, haze, and gloss.

Common Problems Air entrapment between film layers and rollers – this may cause film scratching or wrinkling, or processing problems when winding up the film due to reduced friction. Possible solutions to this is using a vacuum to remove entrapped air or by using winding rolls with a diamond shaped groove in the rubber cover to increase surface area and decrease amount of entrapped air in the film. Large output fluctuations from the die – this causes thickness variations, and can be prevented by keeping the extruder clean and by using more consistently shaped pellets in the extruder. Melt fractures – these appear as roughness or wavy lines on the film surface, and can be eliminated by lowering the viscosity of the polymer melt. This can be done by increasing the melting temperature or by adding an internal lubricant to the material composition. Thickness variations in the film – this can be avoided by centering the die in the extrusion line before every run, adjusting the air speed of the cooling system, or by using heated die lips. Die lines on the surface of the film – this defect reduces the aesthetic appeal of the film, reduces optical properties, and weakens mechanical properties such as tear strength. This can usually be avoided by routinely cleaning the inner surfaces of the die and by refinishing scratched or roughened flow surfaces. Gels – these defects are small, hard globules encapsulated in the film or stuck on the film surface and reduce the aesthetic appeal of the film and cause stress concentration points which may result in premature failure. These are caused by overheating to the point of polymer degradation in the die, and can therefore be avoided by cleaning the inner surfaces of the die on a regular basis. Optimization of the Process Coextrusion One way to improve the line efficiency of blown film extrusion is to implement coextrusion. This is the process of extruding two or more materials simultaneously through a single die. The orifices in the die are arranged such that the layers merge together before cooling. This process saves time because it extrudes two or more layers at the same time, and it provides a method with fewer steps to produce multilayer films. The production rate for a coextruded multilayer film of three layers is about 65m/min, and the production rate for a single layer of blown film is about 130m/min. Thus, in order to produce 10 000m of a three layer multilayer film, it would take almost 4 hours using a single layer blown film process, and only 2 and a half hours using the coextrusion process. Furthermore, the film produced from the single layer process would require an extra step to glue the layers together using some sort of adhesive. Coextrusion is the least expensive means of producing layered films and the coextrusion system is capable of quick changeovers to minimize production line down time.

Minimizing the Melt Temperature
The efficiency of blown film extrusion can be improved by minimizing the temperature of the polymer melt. Reduction of the melt temperature causes the melt to require less heating in the extruder. Normal extrusion conditions have a melting temperature at about 190 C despite the fact that the temperature of the melt only needs to be about 135 C. However, it is not always practical to decrease the melting temperature by that much. By decreasing the melt temperature 2 to 20 C, the motor load can be decreased by about 1 to 10%. Furthermore, reduction of the melt temperature causes less need for cooling, so there is a reduced use of the cooling system. Moreover, removing heat from the bubble is usually the rate-limiting factor in this extrusion process, so by having less heat in the polymer to remove, the rate of the process can be increased, thus yielding higher productivity. A way to maintain the melt temperature at a minimum is to choose an extruder that is matched to the specific processing conditions, such as the material of the melt, pressure, and throughput.

Heated Extrusion Die Lips
Typically, solutions to melt fractures involve decreasing the output or increasing the melt temperature to decrease the shear stress in the extruder. Both of these methods are not ideal because they both reduce the efficiency of the blown film line. Heated extrusion die lips can solve this problem. This targeted heating method allows for film extruders to be run at higher production rates with narrower die gaps while eliminating melt fractures. Direct heat is applied to the surface of the polymer melt as it exits the die so that viscosity is reduced. Therefore, melt fractures, which are caused when trying to extrude too much of the polymer at one time, will no longer act as a limiting factor to increasing the production rate. Furthermore, heated die lips use less energy than increasing the melting temperature because only the surface of the melt is heated and not the bulk of the liquid. Another benefit of using heated die lips is that thickness variations can be controlled by adding heat to certain areas along the die circumference to make the film at that position thinner. This would ensure that no excess material is used.
Determine how much energy each of these processes can save per given volume of material. 

Above article from www.appropedia.org

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Publicity And Media Solutions

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When you think of giving a site or product exposure, people immediately think of advertising in say – The local papers, yellow pages, TV, Radio Ads, Fliers and all other sorts of advertising media. Publicity is none of the above. Advertising is Advertising and Publicity is Publicity. The way to describe Publicity is that it is usually done by writing a story or a description of something funny that happened on the way home or some topical event. This story usually involves you – but it also involves mentioning your business, giving your Name, Email, website address and anything else you wish to put into the article. This article or story is then submitted to your local newspaper editor, the local radio station, free newspapers and any other media looking for a good story to fill up their paper so that they don’t have to go looking for news.

Depending on how well the article is written as to how willing the media will be to accept your article. You may have also taken some photos or videos of the event you saw which you can admit as well. If you have written a story of your new restaurant make it credible, detail what type of food you are going to be serving, giving them an idea of what will be on the menu, what type of service they can expect and whether it is licensed or not. Also mention any successful restaurants, cafes or any eateries that you have been connected with. Mention how experienced your staff is and where they worked before. Mention how the food will be cooked and what garnishing and extras you will be serving with your meals.

All this is to encourage the reader to come and sample all your restaurant has to offer, and if the customer is hungry and eager – whatever you do don’t disappoint them. Publicity for other businesses roughly follows the same formula. You mention your Qualification, your staffs qualifications, how the establishment is set up and of courses tell them the address of your business so that they can find it. Putting a large address number at the front of your building if practical makes it much easier for you to be found. You do want people driving up and down and giving up when they can’t find it. Also if it is practical you should have a large sign and several smaller ones so that customers can see where you are whichever direction they are coming from.

If you want to put a story on TV for free or paid TV naturally you have to try and do it yourself which is usually fine if you are putting a video on YouTube or Google Video or one of the other video sites. If you want to put a small story on TV on some of the cable channels you can do it yourself, but on regular TV, you want to come across as semi professional and not a backyard, fly by night experience. There are a lot of Media professionals that are quite competitive price-wise, even compared to newspapers.

Someone once said “All Publicity Is Good Publicity”. Why do you think people throw TV, s out of hotel windows, get married for 24 hours, spend $3million on their wedding. That is because the publicity that comes from such events, makes people famous, saves careers, gets full front page, prime time TV exposure, publicity which you can not buy. It is a great way to keep people in the foreground and have people talking about them. Odd Strange and Eccentric people sell newspapers and TV time.

People who are loved by some and hated by others are a very salable item, with managers lining up to sign them up no matter what they are famous for. Therefore your business must try to find something about it that people will talk about!

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Weight Loss Help Programs – Where to Get Them

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Need weight loss help? Getting help anywhere—in books, the internet, the magazines, and others—is now easy with the help of the print media, film and   TV   media , and the internet.

Weight loss help books are available in the bookstores anywhere in your vicinity. These books are usually of the self-help variety which can contain tips on how to maintain your regular and/or ideal weight and tips on how to achieve your ideal weight if you are overweight, that is.

Information about the quick weight loss diet programs that are ceaselessly advertised by stars in and out of the TV screens, the health and fitness channels on TV, the weekly or monthly entertainment magazines and even those we encounter in casual conversations with our friends are now printed with in depth and with more details on the self-help books.

To know more about weight loss and the methods employed by majority of the public, it’s best to check with the bookstores or the libraries.

Another source of weight loss help aside from the books is the internet. Type in the keywords: “weight loss help” on the search bars of Google, Yahoo, Altavista, MSN—and other web browsers—and hit the enter key on the keyboard and a number of page titles containing the keywords you entered will come out right in front of your face!

All you need do is sift through the information you get, whether they are significant or unnecessary, and do extensive reading on them. One website on weight loss issues, authored by Anne Collins, compiled many articles that you may find helpful on the subject of weight loss. Aside from that site, there are a few more sites that offer the same kind of services.

All you need do is type and click the search button beside the search bar of your chosen web browser. Also, it would probably be more helpful if you combine both the information power of the print media and the electronic media.

With the combined abilities of the print media (books, magazines, newspapers and etc.) and the electronic media (namely, the internet), the more you acquire information on weight loss that are significant, valid and genuinely backed by scientific studies.

Aside from books and the internet, there are videotapes and DVDs or VCDs that give instructions or information on the many popular methods of losing weight. These visual media are also great source for weight loss help—most especially to those who seek them. VCDs, DVDs and videotapes are usually of the documentary-demonstration type where there is little interview and more demonstration on how the methods employed in losing weight work on the human body. Of course you can also get help from those who have used these weight loss programs and have nothing but compliments and praises on them. Casual conversations with friends who’ve used the popular methods of losing weight can be a great source of information on weight loss.

In this technologically-advanced era, weight loss help is only a few steps ahead of us. All we do is read around!

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Agricultural Biotechnology International Conference Kicks Off in Australia

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A major international conference on agricultural biotechnology starts in Melbourne, Australia, today (August 6, 2006).The Agricultural Biotech International Conference (ABIC) brings together representatives of biotech companies, agricultural researchers and policy makers from across the world.

The theme of this conference is Unlocking the Potential of Agricultural Biotechnology. Some of the topics to be discussed include:

* Importance of biotechnology in meeting global food requirements.

* Application of agricultural biotechnology in biomedicine.

* Commercialization of innovative biotechnology.

* Practical applications of genomics to cereal crops.

* Using biotechnology to protect and enhance food supply.

* Biotechnology in developing countries.

Unlocking the potential of agricultural biotechnology is an issue that has been with us since the commercialization of the first genetically modified crop a decade ago. Developed countries, notably the U.S. and Canada, appreciate that agricultural biotechnology has been a prime mover of their economies. They have massively invested in it, effectively eclipsing the so-called conventional agriculture. The gains have been innumerable.

Farmers in these countries have almost doubled their income from cultivating genetically modified crops, that are usually high yielding and pest resistant.

In developing countries, the picture is different. Agricultural biotechnology remains a contested issue. Many developing countries would not embrace because of their distrust for the developed countries. Others have been fed with lies that agricultural biotechnology, and in particular Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), pose danger to the environment and the health of consumers.

Positive attributes of agricultural biotechnology must be played out at the Melbourne meeting for all to listen.

It’s encouraging that delegates from developing countries such as Prof. Jennifer Thomson (South Africa), Dr. Jagadish Mittur (India), and Dr. Rangsun Parnpai (Thailand) are attending this conference. They have a chance to learn firsthand how agricultural biotechnology has revolutionized the economies of such countries as the U.S., Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. These delegates must explore how their countries can similarly benefit from agricultural biotechnology.

Since this is a gathering of experts in agricultural biotechnology, it’s expected that there will a productive debate on the potential of agricultural biotechnology. Delegates should conduct their deliberations with developing countries in mind. It’s here where agricultural biotechnology is in dire need.

Developing countries delegates are encouraged to view this conference as a window of opportunity to learn from as many experts as possible on the potential of agricultural biotechnology.

Once the curtains of this conference fall, delegates from developing countries must ensure that they share the lessons learnt with policy makers, scientists and farmers in their respective countries.

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