Having The Finest Prices On Payday Cash Loans

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It is not necessarily unheard of for consumers to find themselves needing fast cash. On account of the fast lending of payday advance creditors, it is possible to get the income as quickly as the same day. Listed below, you will find many ways that can help you discover the payday loan that meet your requirements.

If you’re nearing the date as soon as your payday advance needs to be repaid, but are quick on income, check with the company to offer you an extension. At times, a loan company will offer a 1 or 2 day extension on your deadline. Having said that, they might charge more curiosity.

Pay back the entire bank loan as soon as you can. You are going to have a thanks date, and be aware of that day. The quicker you pay back the loan completely, the quicker your financial transaction together with the cash advance clients are comprehensive. That could help you save funds in the end.

If you need funds, a payday advance could be your greatest remedy. You should know what you’re engaging in prior to recognize to get a cash advance, even though. Pay day loans have high rates of interest and several charges, which regularly means they are demanding to get rid of.

Consider each of the alternatives that exist for your needs. When you examine different types of personal loans, you could find a better amount compared to a cash advance. This mostly is dependent upon credit rating and how a lot you would like to use. Investigating all your possibilities could help you save lots of income.

Count on the pay day loan firm to contact you. Every single firm must verify the details they obtain from every single prospect, and that implies that they have to make contact with you. They should speak with you in person before they accept the money. As a result, don’t give them a number that you simply by no means use, or implement whilst you’re at the office. The more time it will require so they can consult with you, the more you will need to wait for dollars.

Be skeptical associated with a payday advance business that is not completely in the beginning using their rates of interest and costs, plus the timetable for repayment. The Simple Truth in Lending Work demands particular disclosures. When a business won’t disclose amount and payment details, these are almost certainly crooks that will cost you in a major way in hidden costs.

Be sure to acquire only around you may pay back once it can be expected. It is likely you will end up accepted for more income than you demand, but this might help you get right into a circumstance your location having to pay much more in costs and attention.

The easiest way to make use of a pay day loan would be to pay it back in full without delay. The fees, attention, and other expenses associated with these lending options may cause substantial personal debt, that is just about impossible to repay. So when you can pay out the loan off, do it and you should not lengthen it.

If an unexpected emergency has arrived, and you also were required to make use of the help of a paycheck financial institution, make sure you repay the payday cash loans as soon as it is possible to. Lots of people get their selves inside an worse fiscal bind by not repaying the borrowed funds promptly. No only these loans have got a highest yearly portion level. They also have high-priced additional fees that you will find yourself having to pay should you not pay off the financing on time.

For people with examined all of their choices and have made the decision that they must make use of an urgent cash advance, be described as a intelligent customer. Perform some research and select a payday lender that offers the cheapest rates of interest and fees. Whenever possible, only acquire what you are able afford to pay for to pay back together with your following income.

Investigate just what the total cost of your personal loan will be. It is popular that payday cash loans involve beyond typical rates. Nevertheless, this isn’t the sole thing that service providers can hit you with. They could also ask you for with big costs for every single bank loan that may be taken out. See the small print to determine exactly how much you’ll be billed in charges.

Have a cash advance only if you wish to protect certain bills quickly this would largely incorporate charges or medical expenditures. Will not enter into the habit of smoking of taking pay day loans. The high rates of interest could really cripple your financial situation around the long term, and you must discover ways to stick to a financial budget as opposed to borrowing cash.

There is not any denying the fact that payday loans functions as a lifeline when cash is quick. What is important for just about any would-be customer is usually to left arm their selves with as much information and facts as is possible well before agreeing to any this sort of bank loan. Utilize the direction within this part, and you will be ready to take action within a economically sensible manner.

Makeup for HDTV: Looking Your Best on TV

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The purpose for all makeup is to enhance your best features and minimize your flaws. Unlike television of old, high definition television does not require the thick pancake makeup, dark contouring or dramatic applications. Nor will everyday street makeup create flawless looking skin.

A professional makeup artist, studied in HDTV, can tailor your approach guided by your coloring and bone structure. For personal application, the following is a guideline to the products and application techniques you will need before you appear on HDTV.

Men and women alike require a foundation, concealer and blush/bronzer for any HDTV appearance. Women (and some men) will also need eye makeup and lip color.

Aptly named, the foundation selected for on air appearance is the single most important element in creating a pleasing look.

The allover face makeup used in HDTV differs from daywear. Even the most flawless complexions should not attempt to go barefaced. Makeup for HDTV should cover the entire face, neck, hands and any other exposed skin. Attempting spot application will appear just as that…spots!

The two formulations of makeup to date which best serve HDTV are airbrush and mineral powders.

Airbrush makeup is the choice of most professional television makeup artists. The coverage is complete and flawless. Applying airbrush makeup requires a compressor-like machine. Makeup is applied in seconds, evenly and completely. Tiny molecules of either water based, alcohol, polymer, or silicone based foundation is sprayed through a medium to fine airbrush nozzle onto the skin.

Complete airbrush systems with a low pressure compressor (about 10 psi) range in price from $120US to $1,000US or more.

Television anchors, hosts or frequent TV guests would benefit from this investment. Use takes a little practice, but it is easy to master. The flawless appearance pays for itself.

“Airbrush” makeup in an aerosol can is available at many price ranges. This make-up works quite well for occasional application. However, following manufacturer’s instructions to apply to the hand and then to the face can lead to streaking. Direct spraying on to the face is not recommended by most manufacturers, or by this author. This product is inexpensive, and can produce acceptable results.

Airbrush makeup can correct flaws, hide tattoos and cover rosacea, port wine and similar skin blemishes.

The other option for HDTV quality foundation is mineral powders. This is the easiest makeup to master for amateur application. Skin tone shades are applied via a kabuki brush, a stub handled thickly bristled brush.

Application involves buffing the powder into the skin, which creates a soft matte appearance. Shine on HDTV is glaring, distracting, and reminiscent of the flop sweats on Broadcast News.

The actual application uses a surprisingly small amount of powder to achieve coverage. Minor to moderate skin imperfections can be hidden without creating a chalky appearance.

The only caution in selecting a mineral powder makeup is the mica content. Mica is a light reflector, and can create unflattering reflections on the skin. Test any mineral powder under a strong light or in bright sunlight. If the powder appears to “sparkle”, choose another brand with less reflectivity.

Poorly applied makeup is a distraction (remember Al Gore’s imitation Reagan makeup during the first George W. Bush presidential debate?)

Adjusting the makeup formulation and application before standing in from of a high definition camera can create the appearance you need to allow your message to be heard.

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International Conferencing for Your Business Brilliance

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With fast paced globalization, world economy has witnessed a drastic change and now the companies have decided to head on foreign investments to maintain pace with the changing market scenario. Companies are keen to set up offices across the world. The reason for establishing offices abroad is to keep a strong footing in international arena. So, in order sustain close contacts and co-ordination with the regional branches of the corporate houses, international conferencing has become really indispensable. Besides, such conferencing solution has proved to be an essential means of connecting multiple parties straight to people in various locations round the globe.

Frankly speaking, gone are the days when business personnel and representatives were required to throng to foreign countries to meet and invite new business collaborates, suppliers, channel partners, retailers and other dealers. With international conferencing becoming the most sought after tool these days nothing seems impossible. One can just make good use of internet or telephone to connect with the stakeholders and communicate with them in real-time. So it is not only convenient but also reduces the conference calling expenses, curtailing the traveling time and costs each time.

Big business houses and organizations, seeking for the most cost-effective means to manage their conferencing arrangements can look for call service providers which offer effective services at reasonable costs. The service providers come up with wide range of web interacting solutions that let the users work in virtual setting which is pretty supportive to collaboration. The basic requirement for such type of virtual meeting is computer or laptop well accompanied by fast net connection and a conferencing application. The conferencing service doesn’t demand any software installation by participants or moderators. What’s more is that the user-friendly application is well accessible from all the web browsers devoid of any plug-ins. Simply put, they are fully safe, as the service operator encrypts the solutions as per maximum security protocol.

There are plenty of providers dealing with international conference call service who are into offering global conferencing service to company. The providers present applications which are installed with multiple advanced features. The users get the choice of transferring the applications, documents and files without any heck followed by sharing the whole desktop with participants present on the other side. The webcasting service lets the participants to record the meeting for further reference. Apart from these, the effective features include drag and drop, white boarding which are included into the transmission software to guarantee right brainstorming and transmission at real time amongst participants who are located at distant places. Companies as well as individuals can choose such features as per their needs and requirements while gaining international conferencing solutions from reliable service providers.

To conclude, this can be said that with operator backed conference call, you get the liberty to simplify the whole conference process and facilitate your meeting in a more effective and formal manner. Well, regardless of your business size, be it big or small, you can make good use of this superb international conferencing and make the communication easy like never before.

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International Copyright Protection

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Copyright Intellectual Property can be protected at National and International. Copyright has international protection such as Berne convention, universal copyright convention, WIPO copyright Treaty, Rome convention, Brussels convention etc.

The International union for the protection of literary and artistic works was established in 1886 in Berne, Switzerland. It is popularly known as Berne Convention. It entered into force on 5th December, 1887 and it has been revised for five times. It is administered by world intellectual property organization (WIPO). The Berne convention has 38 articles and special provisions for the developing countries. The convention has established a minimum of protection of life plus 50 years or an alternative of fifty years from publication of anonymous work and pseudonymous work. India is a member of the Berne convention.

One of the International copyright protections is Universal Copyright Convention (UCC). The universal copyright convention was signed and entered into force on September 6, 1952. It was revised on 1971 at Paris. The protection given is for published as well as unpublished works. The member countries must grant a minimum copyright term of 25 years from publication, or life of the author plus 25 years. The foreign authors of other member countries must be granted exclusively rights for at least seven years.

The next International Copyright protection for the performers, producers of phonogram and broadcasting organizations is Rome convention. The Rome convention was completed on October 26, 1961 and entered into force on may 18, 1964 basically intend to protect the neighboring rights. Phonogram is a sound recording. The rights in respect of phonograms and performances and broadcasting are called neighboring rights.

The benefits of this convention are performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasters. The protection is granted for twenty years term will vary according to the nature of work. The eligibility to participate in this convention is that a state must be a member of either of the Berne convention or the universal copyright convention.

Another International Copyright protection is WIPO copyright Treaty. It was adopted by the diplomatic conference at Geneva on December 20, 1996 and entered into force on January 1, 1996. This convention is for the protection of rights of performers and produces of phonograms. The term of protection is fifty years.

Some treaties convention gives protection for the unauthorized duplication. On October 29, 1971, the convention for the producers of phonograms against unauthorized duplication of their phonograms is signed at Geneva. The main purpose of this Geneva Convention is to fight against the practice of piracy by third parties.

The convention relating to the distribution of programme- carrying signals transmitted by satellite and audio- visual works is Brussels convention signed on may 21 1974. The main purpose is to battle the misappropriation of satellite signals on an international level. The treaty on international registration of audio-visual works Geneva signed on April 20, 1989 at Geneva. It deals with the registration of audio- visual works at the international level.

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Media Addiction Quiz for Teens: Do TV, Video Games and Computers Run Your Life?

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Welcome to “The Media Generation”

Teens are spending so much time watching TV and playing with their computer and video games that the Kaiser Family Foundation has dubbed this generation “The Media Generation.”

The recent study found that children aged 8-18 were watching TV, playing video games, on their computers, and listening to music for a total of 6 hours and 23 minutes EVERY DAY! Many kids were doing two or more activities at once. Most of this time is still spent watching TV. Kids spent almost four hours every day watching TV. With so much time in front of   TV  and other  media , perhaps Kaiser should have labeled it “The Media-Addicted Generation.”

What excess TV, video game, and computer use may be doing to you

How much time you spend in front of a TV, video, and computer screen is important, because these activities have been linked to obesity, attention problems (like ADHD), and poor grades. Violent content may condition you to accept violence in your life. The sexual content of many popular shows and games may encourage you to experiment before you are ready. The TV can act as a depressant, stifle your creativity, encourage conformity, and simply waste your valuable time.

Find out if you are part of “The Media-Addicted Generation”:

1. Does your family have more than one TV set? Yes [] No []

2. Are you in front of a screen for more than 2 hours per day?Yes [] No []

3. Do you sometimes have trouble getting TV or video game

jingles “out of your head”? Yes [] No []

4. Is there a TV/video game/computer playing in your

home much or all of the time? Yes [] No []

5. Do you have a TV, video game, and/or computer in your

bedroom? Yes [] No []

6. Is it easy for you to turn off the TV/video game in the

middle of a favorite show/game? Yes [] No []

7. Do you ever rush home, ditching friends and family, to

catch a favorite TV show, play video games, or go on the

computer? Yes [] No []

8. Do you frequently eat meals while in front of the TV,

video games, or computer? Yes [] No []

9. Have you ever caught yourself unintentionally mimicking

a TV or video game character? Yes [] No []

10. Do you talk to and play with your friends more than you

watch TV, play games, and play with computers? Yes [] No []

11. Can you turn off the TV, computer, and video games OFF

right now and leave them off for three days? Yes [] No []

12. Do you ever mindlessly surf through TV channels or

the internet? Yes [] No []

13. Do you need TV, video game, or a computer to relax after

a rough day? Yes [] No []

14. Do you feel edgy, anxious, or “not right” if there is no TV,

video game, or a computer playing? Yes [] No []

15. Do you watch TV, play video games, and/or play on the

computer more than spend time with your family? Yes [] No []

16. Do you ever watch the TV, play video games, or surf

the internet longer than you intend to? Yes [] No []

17. Do you feel spend too much time with TV, video games,

or computer? Yes [] No []

18. Have you missed a special event with friends or family

because you were watching a TV program? Yes [] No []

19. Have you ever tried to quit watching TV, playing video

games, or going on computer, but were unsuccessful? Yes [] No []

20. Do you have difficulty limiting the time you watch TV,

play video games, or go on the computer? Yes [] No []

*Note: Time spent on the computer for homework purposes does not count:

To calculate your score:

For all questions, except for #6, #10, and #11, give yourself 1 point for every “Yes” answer and 0 points for every “No”. For questions #6, #10, and #11 give yourself 0 points for every “Yes”, answer and 1 point for every “No”. Add your total.

Your total: ____________

Scoring:

0-6: Great! Your TV, computer, and video games are not in control of your life. You are. But keep an eye on how much time you spend with these activities to make sure an addiction does not sneak up on you.

7-14: You are moderately addicted to your TV, video games, or computer. Maybe all of them. The good news is that with a little effort, a list of fun non-screen activities, and a reasonable schedule you should be able to keep your addiction under control. “The TV-FREE System” also helps you create a schedule that keeps you busy with fun, goal-centered activities. Follow your dreams instead of staring at a screen..

15-20: Oh dear. You probably have a serious addiction problem. You may need to take extreme steps, including getting rid of your TV or video games, to get in control of your time. Start with the device which squanders the most of your time. The good news is “The TV-FREE System” was designed to help even the most serious addict, and can be used for video game, or computer addiction as well.

Life is too short to “watch” it go by.

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Television and Children – How TV Affects Your Child

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There is an ongoing debate about the effects of television on children. Some believe that TV has a lot to offer. It can educate, stimulate and entertain. If parents are discerning about what their child watches and how much they watch, there is nothing too harmful about TV. On the other hand, some experts say that any children under two should not watch any television. They feel that it hinders a child’s growth and development in many ways.

So before you sit your kids down in front of your huge plasma TV, have a think about what they are watching and how long they are watching.To get a look at both sides of the debate, lets break this discussion down in to the positive and negative effects of television on young viewers.

Positive:

  • Children can learn about numbers, letters, colours and shapes by watching quality educational programmes.
  • Children can learn about social interaction and manners on good quality dramatic and educational programmes.
  • For many parents of young children, a day at home is many hours to fill. Sometimes a familiar or appropriate movie or programme can provide a relaxing moment both child and parent.
  • Children enjoy the familiarity of a movie or show they have watched many times as much as they love to read the same book again and again.
  • Many movies and shows have a moral tale, and this can sometimes provide a helpful way for parents to introduce moral themes and ideas into their children’s lives.
  • Quite often a movie or show can provide the inspiration for games and creative play away from the TV. A child might enjoy re-enacting a favourite scene or character from a movie and carry on with this scene in their playtime.
  • TV and media is a way of life in this day and age. Children can benefit from being conditioned and familiarised with media concepts. It will help them participate in social and cultural events and discussions in their developing social and educational lives.

Negative:

  • Children under two can be negatively affected by television. It can stunt their social and mental development.
  • Too many hours in front of a TV can prevent children from interacting with their family and siblings.
  • Too much TV can become a problem for some children who engage in less physical activity because they prefer to watch TV.
  • Too much exposure to TV and screen media can make a child’s mind lazy in terms of using their imagination and brainpower in other areas of their lives.
  • When children watch TV they are being exposed to advertising. A lot of advertising is aimed specifically at young children. Ads target young ones and condition them to become loyal brand consumers as adults. Exposure to some ads could encourage poor eating habits and food choices.
  • Injudicious TV watching can expose children to bad habits such as smoking and drinking. It can expose them to violence and create a mindset of fear and aggression.
  • Watching TV can also instil in your children social stereotypes of race, gender and class.

With so many reasons for and against TV watching, it seems that the decision is best left up to the parent. A parent knows their own child and how best to manage their TV watching habits. Undoubtedly a discerning and vigilant attitude is essential when exposing young children to TV, so think twice before you sit you child in front of your beloved flat screen, HD TV.

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A Finer Look on Phentermine 37.5 mg Diet Pills and the Finest Alternative Remedies

An increasing number of individuals struggling with obesity in newly developed nations were recorded, which only signifies that this chronic condition is not only common in Europe, United States, and Canada. Obesity can trigger a domino impact concerning your health where you could experience other health conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and more that’s precisely why health providers always teach individuals to stay a healthy way of life and stick to the normal weight. Several patients who have tested out different diet programs and workout programs doesn’t react effectively to it that is exactly why medical professionals advise including appetite suppressants in the program. Take a closer look on  phentermine 37.5 mg  and discover what precisely are the best Phentermine alternative out there. Phentermine 37.5 mg is deemed as an appetite suppressant, and it also forestalls the formation of undesirable fats in the body but you need to know what is the side effects of phentermine. Phentermine and amphetamine have similar composition. Phentermine stimulates hypothalamus in the brain together with other neuron transmitters which goes all through the body. Controlling hunger is challenging for all of us and even more tough for the overweight. Keeping your urges for food under control is very important for a successful weightloss program, and that can be done effortlessly through the use of Phentermine. Effective outcomes can be attained with this drug if this taken in combination with a proper diet and workout regime in his weightloss program. This type of drug is given mainly to obese folks. If you are using Phentermine, remember that you might get to experience its unwanted side effects. The most typical side effect is sedation. Make certain to evaluate your own body’s reaction to Phentermine first, and do not take the drug if you’re going to operate heavy machines, drive, and other activities where mental alertness is a must. The efficiency of Phentermine in taking away fats doesn’t turn it into a safe medicine for everybody as there are factors that made this contraindicated to other people. An equally efficient and result oriented Phentermine alternative is obtainable on the market these days. Phentramin-d is best Phentermine alternative. It is a non-prescription drug which can be simply purchased over the counter. Remember that the Phentermine alternative will work faster and better in shedding those unwanted fat within your body. Addiction and several other side-effects is higher with Phentermine, but the occurrence of side effects in this Phentermine alternative is fairly minimal. This has much less side effects because of the substance found in it, the sympathomimetic amine which is comparable to amphetamine. However lesser dangers don’t fully take away the chances of unwanted effects. As such, this Phentermine 37.5 mg (read this article) alternative is completely safe where you can find 1, 3 Dimethylpentylamine hydrochloride and 1, 3, 7 Trimethylxanthine. It is one of the best fat burner that lowers the overall intake of the calories by limitation the desire to snack and managing the food cravings. Medicines that have chromium, ephedra or herbs normally require a prescription, but these ingredients aren’t incorporated in this medicine that’s the reason why it can still give the desired outcomes despite the fact that you can acquire this without prescription. 

Western Digital WD TV Live Review

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Okay! Here goes my first gadget review. I am going to tell about a very cool bit of technology innovation called Western Digital WD TV Live player. A small cute device that is going to change the way you viewed connected media before!

Honestly speaking I didn’t appreciate this amazing piece of work when my husband bought it. Well he is a gadget freak or more rightly an electronics-shopaholic. But just like any shopaholics he has his own way of convincing why that was a ‘can’t live without’ stuff. I was really skeptical if any of his reasoning was going to even convince me on this. But this time, it was the product that convinced me! I’d not say that it’s a gadget you can’t live without, but I’d definitely say its worth every penny for its versatility.

Features:

Full-HD 1080p video playback.

Plays almost all types of media

Audio – MP3, WMA, OGG, WAV/PCM/LPCM, AAC, FLAC, Dolby Digital, AIF/AIFF, MKA

Photo – JPEG, GIF, TIF/TIFF, BMP, PNG

Video – MPEG1/2/4, WMV9, AVI (MPEG4, Xvid, AVC), H.264, MKV, MOV (MPEG4, H.264),MTS, TP, TS

Playlist PLS, M3U, WPL Subtitle -SRT (UTF-8), SMI, SUB, ASS, SSA

Doesn’t require a Western Digital networked device to be able to play the media in it.

Live streaming from YouTube, Flickr, Pandora, and Live365. What’s more here?? You can login to your personal accounts in these internet media sites and play just your favorites! (Unfortunately Netflix and Picasa are missing.)

Comes with a good remote control.

Hitches:

Yeah it does have few hitches.

1. Though the network setup is really simple (just have to plug-in the cable from router), a small mistake in setting up file sharing in connected PCs can take ages to resolve. I personally had this problem (I had one Win7 laptop and one Win XP laptop – WD in fact offered to take the device back as they couldn’t say why I couldn’t connect to the networked laptops. Thankfully I had sense enough to Google for the solution and we were able to do the network media sharing!)

2. No inbuilt wireless connectivity. But this can be excused as streaming media over the network is better when its wired rather than wireless. (We did try the Wireless-N adapter, but it works pretty good as our router is also 802.11 draft2 N class – but definitely not as good as having it hard connected). So what’s the hitch? The extra bucks that you’ll have to throw in for the wireless adapter (and a N router).

Final Word:

This all in one wonder box is sure enough worth the money and will have you hooked on to it. Its a real piece of entertainment – Go for it! Its time for you to experience the good things that come in this small package.

Read more: http://mymindstalk.blogspot.com/2010/09/western-digital-wd-tv-live-review.html

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Spokane TV Stations: From Analog to Digital

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Spokane TV stations are broadcast companies in Spokane Washington that transmits programs over a television (medium). The most recent technology promotes that broadcast signals will be switched to the new digital signal. There are a number of well-known TV stations in Spokane which is already broadcasting digitally. So it exactly means that they will all switch off the analog signals by next year. When switched to this latest innovation, viewers will discover that stations are able to add auxiliary channels.

Here is a list of Spokane’s TV stations that serves the Spokane television market provided with their corresponding channels:

  • KREM Channel 2

KREM Channel 2 is one of the television stations in Spokane, WA which serves the Spokane television market. This TV station is located in 4103 South Regal Street Spokane, WA 99223. The programming of the station is run by the CBS network. KREM operates with 893 kilowatts of power and is owned by the Belo Corporation.

  • KXLY Channel 4

KXLY is a television station which runs programming from the ABC network. KXLY is a digital full-power television station that operates with 23.3 kilowatts of power and is owned by Spokane Television Group, a subsidiary of Morgan Murphy Media.

  • KHQ Channel 6

This TV station has just completed its installation and testing of a new digital antenna to greatly improve the station’s signal strength last week. The station runs programming from the NBC network and operates 45.1 kilowatts of power. The station is owned by The KHQ Television Group, a subsidiary of Cowles Publishing Company, which owns The Spokesman-Review newspaper.

  • KSPS Channel 7

This TV station which broadcasts three channels, including channels 8 and 44 has modified its digital frequencies. This change will be effective next year. The station runs programming from the PBS network and operates with 21.6 kilowatts of power. KSPS Channel is owned by Spokane Public Schools.

  • KWSU Channel 10

KWSU is a television station in Pullman which runs programming from the PBS network. KWSU with 6.2 kilowatts of power and is owned by Washington State University.

  • KSKN Channel 22

KSKN is a television station in Spokane which runs programming from the The CW network and identifies itself as “CW 22”. KSKN operates with 250 kilowatts of power and is owned by Belo Corporation.

  • KQUP Channel 24

KQUP is a television station in Pullman, WA which runs Daystar programming and identifies itself as “KQUP 24”. KQUP operates with 57 kilowatts of power and is owned by Daystar Television Network.

  • KCDT Channel 26

KCDT is a television station in Coeur d’Alene, ID which runs programming from the PBS network and identifies itself as “Idaho PTV”. This television station operates with 38 kilowatts of power and is owned by Idaho State Board of Education.

  • KAYU Channel 28

KAYU is a television station in Spokane, WA which runs programming from the FOX network and identifies itself as “FOX 28”. KAYU operates with 91.4 kilowatts of power and is owned by Northwest Broadcasting.

  • KGPX Channel 34

KGPX is a television station in Spokane which runs programming from the ion network. KGPX is a digital full-power television station that operates with 104 kilowatts of power and is owned by ION Media Networks.

  • KHBA Channel 39

KHBA Channel 39 is a low-power TV station broadcasting locally on UHF. This TV station is the only local Christian station which runs programming from 3ABN. The station is owned by He’s Alive Broadcasting Association.

Get the latest news scoops that you want at Spokane TV stations.

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Blown Film Extrusion Introduction

Blown Film Extrusion Introduction
Blown film extrusion is a technology that is the most common method to make plastic films, especially for the packaging industry. The process involves extruding a tube of molten polymer through a die and inflating to several times its initial diameter to form a thin film bubble. This bubble is then collapsed and used as a lay-flat film or can be made into bags. Usually polyethylene is used with this process, and other materials can be used as blends with these polymers. A diagram of a polyethylene chain is shown in Figure 1 to the right.
Background Theory on Polymers

In the cooling step of blown film extrusion, the amorphous, transparent melt crystallizes to form a translucent, hazy, or opaque film. The point where opacity begins in the bubble is known as the frost line. 
Fig 1: Model of polytheylene chain frompolyethylene Wikipedia article.The frost line height is controlled by several parameters: the air flow, film speed, and temperature difference between the film and the surroundings. Properties of the film, such as tensile strength, flexural strength, toughness, and optical properties, drastically change depending on the orientation of the molecules. As the transverse or hoop direction properties increase, the machine or longitudinal direction properties decrease. For instance, if all the molecules were aligned in the machine direction, it would be easy to tear the film in that direction, and very difficult in the transverse direction.

The Film Blowing machine Process

Fig 2: Schematic of set-up from User:J.Chiang.

Typically, blown film extrusion is carried out vertically upwards, however horizontal and downward extrusion processes are now becoming more common. Figure 2 shows a schematic of the set-up for blown film extrusion. This procedure consists of four main steps: The polymer material starts in a pellet form, which are successively compacted and melted to form a continuous, viscous liquid. This molten plastic is then forced, or extruded, through an annular die. Air is injected through a hole in the center of the die, and the pressure causes the extruded melt to expand into a bubble. The air entering the bubble replaces air leaving it, so that even and constant pressure is maintained to ensure uniform thickness of the film. The bubble is pulled continually upwards from the die and a cooling ring blows air onto the film. The film can also be cooled from the inside using internal bubble cooling. This reduces the temperature inside the bubble, while maintaining the bubble diameter. After solidification at the frost line, the film moves into a set of nip rollers which collapse the bubble and flatten it into two flat film layers. The puller rolls pull the film onto windup rollers. The film passes through idler rolls during this process to ensure that there is uniform tension in the film. Between the nip rollers and the windup rollers, the film may pass through a treatment centre, depending on the application. During this stage, the film may be slit to form one or two films, or surface treated. Advantages Blown film generally has a better balance of mechanical properties than cast or extruded films because it is drawn in both the transverse and machine directions. Mechanical properties of the thin film include tensile and flexural strength, and toughness. The nearly uniform properties in both directions allow for maximum toughness in the film.
Blown film extrusion can be used to make one large film, two smaller ones, or tubes that can be made into bags. Also, one die can make many different widths and sizes without significant trimming. This high level of flexibility in the process leads to less scrap material and higher productivity. Blown films also require lower melting temperatures than cast extrusion. Measured at the die opening, the temperature of cast film is about 220 C, where as the temperature of blown film is about 135 C. Furthermore, the cost of the equipment is approximately 50% of a cast line.

Blown Film Extrusion Disadvantages Blown film has a less effective cooling process than flat film. Flat film cooling is done by means of chill rolls or water, which have significantly higher specific heat capacities than the air that is used in the blown film cooling process. The higher specific heat capacity allows the substance to absorb more heat with less change in the substance temperature. Compared to cast film, blown film has a more complicated and less accurate method to control film thickness; cast film has a thickness variation of 1 to 2% versus the 3 to 4% for blown film. The resins used for casting typically have a lower melt flow index, which is the amount of polymer that can be forced through a standard die in 10 minutes according to a standard procedure. The melt flow index for cast film is about 5.0 g/10 min where as for blown film it is about 1.0 g/10 min. Consequently, the production rates for cast film are higher: cast film lines can reach production rates of up to 300m/min where as blown film lines are usually less than half this value. And finally, cast film has better optical properties, including transparency, haze, and gloss.

Common Problems Air entrapment between film layers and rollers – this may cause film scratching or wrinkling, or processing problems when winding up the film due to reduced friction. Possible solutions to this is using a vacuum to remove entrapped air or by using winding rolls with a diamond shaped groove in the rubber cover to increase surface area and decrease amount of entrapped air in the film. Large output fluctuations from the die – this causes thickness variations, and can be prevented by keeping the extruder clean and by using more consistently shaped pellets in the extruder. Melt fractures – these appear as roughness or wavy lines on the film surface, and can be eliminated by lowering the viscosity of the polymer melt. This can be done by increasing the melting temperature or by adding an internal lubricant to the material composition. Thickness variations in the film – this can be avoided by centering the die in the extrusion line before every run, adjusting the air speed of the cooling system, or by using heated die lips. Die lines on the surface of the film – this defect reduces the aesthetic appeal of the film, reduces optical properties, and weakens mechanical properties such as tear strength. This can usually be avoided by routinely cleaning the inner surfaces of the die and by refinishing scratched or roughened flow surfaces. Gels – these defects are small, hard globules encapsulated in the film or stuck on the film surface and reduce the aesthetic appeal of the film and cause stress concentration points which may result in premature failure. These are caused by overheating to the point of polymer degradation in the die, and can therefore be avoided by cleaning the inner surfaces of the die on a regular basis. Optimization of the Process Coextrusion One way to improve the line efficiency of blown film extrusion is to implement coextrusion. This is the process of extruding two or more materials simultaneously through a single die. The orifices in the die are arranged such that the layers merge together before cooling. This process saves time because it extrudes two or more layers at the same time, and it provides a method with fewer steps to produce multilayer films. The production rate for a coextruded multilayer film of three layers is about 65m/min, and the production rate for a single layer of blown film is about 130m/min. Thus, in order to produce 10 000m of a three layer multilayer film, it would take almost 4 hours using a single layer blown film process, and only 2 and a half hours using the coextrusion process. Furthermore, the film produced from the single layer process would require an extra step to glue the layers together using some sort of adhesive. Coextrusion is the least expensive means of producing layered films and the coextrusion system is capable of quick changeovers to minimize production line down time.

Minimizing the Melt Temperature
The efficiency of blown film extrusion can be improved by minimizing the temperature of the polymer melt. Reduction of the melt temperature causes the melt to require less heating in the extruder. Normal extrusion conditions have a melting temperature at about 190 C despite the fact that the temperature of the melt only needs to be about 135 C. However, it is not always practical to decrease the melting temperature by that much. By decreasing the melt temperature 2 to 20 C, the motor load can be decreased by about 1 to 10%. Furthermore, reduction of the melt temperature causes less need for cooling, so there is a reduced use of the cooling system. Moreover, removing heat from the bubble is usually the rate-limiting factor in this extrusion process, so by having less heat in the polymer to remove, the rate of the process can be increased, thus yielding higher productivity. A way to maintain the melt temperature at a minimum is to choose an extruder that is matched to the specific processing conditions, such as the material of the melt, pressure, and throughput.

Heated Extrusion Die Lips
Typically, solutions to melt fractures involve decreasing the output or increasing the melt temperature to decrease the shear stress in the extruder. Both of these methods are not ideal because they both reduce the efficiency of the blown film line. Heated extrusion die lips can solve this problem. This targeted heating method allows for film extruders to be run at higher production rates with narrower die gaps while eliminating melt fractures. Direct heat is applied to the surface of the polymer melt as it exits the die so that viscosity is reduced. Therefore, melt fractures, which are caused when trying to extrude too much of the polymer at one time, will no longer act as a limiting factor to increasing the production rate. Furthermore, heated die lips use less energy than increasing the melting temperature because only the surface of the melt is heated and not the bulk of the liquid. Another benefit of using heated die lips is that thickness variations can be controlled by adding heat to certain areas along the die circumference to make the film at that position thinner. This would ensure that no excess material is used.
Determine how much energy each of these processes can save per given volume of material. 

Above article from www.appropedia.org

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